Help | Contact Us
NukeWorker.com
NukeWorker Menu Use of drones inside NPPs? (to get radiation maps)

Author Topic: Use of drones inside NPPs? (to get radiation maps)  (Read 19527 times)

0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic.

Offline EugenioGarnica

Does anyone have any experience in drones (as quad rotor, see picture below) being used inside NPPs to map radiation levels without needing human worker to receive dose?

What do you think about it?

Thanks!!!!



PD: A very interesting video on the topic:
« Last Edit: Dec 17, 2012, 10:36 by EugenioGarnica »

Offline Marlin

  • Forum Staff
  • *
  • Posts: 13146
  • Total likes: 534
  • Karma: 5129
  • Gender: Male
  • Stop Global Whining!!!
Re: Use of drones inside NPPs? (to get radiation maps)
« Reply #1 on: Dec 17, 2012, 11:54 »
   If the rooms it's used in have loose surface contamination the down draft could cause airborne contamination, that may not be an issue as the need for human presence is excluded by use of the drone. There may also be a safety basis issue introduced, that would have to be looked at for each area of use.

   An indoor drone brings the AR Parrot to mind about 12 minutes of battery life and about $300 at Brookstone. Can't play music like the robots in the other video but probably much cheaper.

« Last Edit: Dec 17, 2012, 12:10 by Marlin »

Offline HydroDave63

Re: Use of drones inside NPPs? (to get radiation maps)
« Reply #2 on: Dec 17, 2012, 01:14 »
wastefully expensive toy and can't carry instruments suitable for legitimate surveys.

Offline RDTroja

  • Site Heretic
  • Gold Member
  • *
  • Posts: 3942
  • Total likes: 163
  • Karma: 4553
  • Gender: Male
  • I knew I got into IT for a reason!
Re: Use of drones inside NPPs? (to get radiation maps)
« Reply #3 on: Dec 17, 2012, 01:47 »
wastefully expensive toy and can't carry instruments suitable for legitimate surveys.

But think of the ways you could use it for job coverage if it had some minor weaponry installed...

 :o  ;)
"I won't eat anything that has intelligent life, but I'd gladly eat a network executive or a politician."

                                  -Marty Feldman

"Politics is supposed to be the second-oldest profession. I have come to understand that it bears a very close resemblance to the first."
                                  -Ronald Reagan

I have never made but one prayer to God, a very short one: 'O Lord, make my enemies ridiculous.' And God granted it.

                                  - Voltaire

Offline HydroDave63

Re: Use of drones inside NPPs? (to get radiation maps)
« Reply #4 on: Dec 17, 2012, 01:56 »
But think of the ways you could use it for job coverage if it had some minor weaponry installed...

 :o  ;)

Hmmm...maybe cockroach nanobots with Wi-Fi connection, with tiny microphones and cams to record personnel hiding out in cafeterias and commodes, and an onboard RFID reader (ain't RealID badges grand? ;) ) to report personnel locations for disciplinary action for slacking "Search and Rescue" capability. Lookalike cockroach nanobots that perform legit general area surface contamination detection. Therefore, you never know if it is a SniffBotTM or a RIFbotTM...  :P

Offline Marlin

  • Forum Staff
  • *
  • Posts: 13146
  • Total likes: 534
  • Karma: 5129
  • Gender: Male
  • Stop Global Whining!!!
Re: Use of drones inside NPPs? (to get radiation maps)
« Reply #5 on: Dec 17, 2012, 02:21 »
But think of the ways you could use it for job coverage if it had some minor weaponry installed...

 :o  ;)

Are we talking stun guns here or tear gas.  [devious]

Offline Marlin

  • Forum Staff
  • *
  • Posts: 13146
  • Total likes: 534
  • Karma: 5129
  • Gender: Male
  • Stop Global Whining!!!
Re: Use of drones inside NPPs? (to get radiation maps)
« Reply #6 on: Dec 17, 2012, 02:34 »
wastefully expensive toy and can't carry instruments suitable for legitimate surveys.

   Emergency response kits for NPPs, DOE, or Homeland Security ??? Cost benefit could be justified in some specific cases for ALARA. The internals of a minirad style detector, a transmitter, and a GPS may small enough to be carried and effective. The high tech robots in the video may be above the cost benefit of the capital and maintenance costs but a hybrid of the AR parrot or (equivalent) may not.

   I would think it would be worth exploring

Offline HydroDave63

Re: Use of drones inside NPPs? (to get radiation maps)
« Reply #7 on: Dec 17, 2012, 02:46 »
   Emergency response kits for NPPs, DOE, or Homeland Security ??? Cost benefit could be justified in some specific cases for ALARA. The internals of a minirad style detector, a transmitter, and a GPS may small enough to be carried and effective. The high tech robots in the video may be above the cost benefit of the capital and maintenance costs but a hybrid of the AR parrot or (equivalent) may not.

   I would think it would be worth exploring

For actual emergencies, tracked/wheeled robots with extension arms for cameras and probes have proved themselves worthy. Since the OP context was inside of NPPs, the Parrot AR comparison and IH implication of flying drone parts vs. people  seems to make this an expensive non-starter.

Offline Marlin

  • Forum Staff
  • *
  • Posts: 13146
  • Total likes: 534
  • Karma: 5129
  • Gender: Male
  • Stop Global Whining!!!
Re: Use of drones inside NPPs? (to get radiation maps)
« Reply #8 on: Dec 17, 2012, 04:58 »
For actual emergencies, tracked/wheeled robots with extension arms for cameras and probes have proved themselves worthy. Since the OP context was inside of NPPs, the Parrot AR comparison and IH implication of flying drone parts vs. people  seems to make this an expensive non-starter.

We will have to agree to disagree on this. Cost of new technology drops as engineers and entrepreneurs (EugenioGarnica) explore new applications. Even if it does not exist in a cost effective configuration now, I suspect if there is a market it will find a way. Drones in the military have found many applications from the Predator drones to the small reconnaissance drones used by foot soldiers in the field. Like the GPS in your car this technology will filter down to a commercial market. Those amazing drones in EugenioGarnica's video I suspect probably would not be cost effective but I suspect that there are a number of HP's looking at a possible new toy and potential applications and how to achieve it as we speak.

Offline retired nuke

  • Family Man
  • Very Heavy User
  • *****
  • Posts: 1508
  • Total likes: 33
  • Karma: 3536
  • Gender: Male
  • No longer a nuke
Re: Use of drones inside NPPs? (to get radiation maps)
« Reply #9 on: Dec 17, 2012, 06:09 »
I was at Ginna many years ago and they used a small blimp to take measurements of the Ctmt dome for their SGRP. I think it used a laser. Similar to the beer blimps you can get for you rec room, but a bit bigger. It was pretty cool to watch, and may have some use.
A little helicopter would be nice in the heater bay at power, with a small wifi camera. Not sure a meter would work on it, but my instrument knowledge is old school...
My big concern (and I'm sure OPS) would be how do you keep it from bumping into critical equipment. I know the ones I play with at home  leave marks on the walls, ceilings, and dogs.... :D
Remember who you love. Remember what is sacred. Remember what is true.
Remember that you will die, and that this day is a gift. Remember how you wish to live, may the blessing of the Lord be with you

Offline RDTroja

  • Site Heretic
  • Gold Member
  • *
  • Posts: 3942
  • Total likes: 163
  • Karma: 4553
  • Gender: Male
  • I knew I got into IT for a reason!
Re: Use of drones inside NPPs? (to get radiation maps)
« Reply #10 on: Dec 17, 2012, 07:18 »
Are we talking stun guns here or tear gas.  [devious]

Stun guns, tasers, .22 short... nothing serious.  ;)
"I won't eat anything that has intelligent life, but I'd gladly eat a network executive or a politician."

                                  -Marty Feldman

"Politics is supposed to be the second-oldest profession. I have come to understand that it bears a very close resemblance to the first."
                                  -Ronald Reagan

I have never made but one prayer to God, a very short one: 'O Lord, make my enemies ridiculous.' And God granted it.

                                  - Voltaire

drayer54

  • Guest
Re: Use of drones inside NPPs? (to get radiation maps)
« Reply #11 on: Dec 17, 2012, 07:26 »
How do I justify buying one of these to the wife?

I told her it would enhance my security system. I also told her it would allow me to keep an eye on the boy from the other side of the house.

No luck yet.....

Nukeworker secret Santa? I'll buy you one, you buy me one?

Offline EugenioGarnica

Re: Use of drones inside NPPs? (to get radiation maps)
« Reply #12 on: Dec 18, 2012, 10:58 »
Dear all,

Many thanks for all your comments (including the stun guns and .22 option, we will explore... ;-) )

Very interesting the use of the blimp, clearly more stable than a quad rotor. We are using some quad rotors in our labs and we have also some marks in walls and ceilings.  :D

I am a little bit confused about cost problem when we talk about this kind of equipment... I have worked many years performing services in NPPs, mainly for big component inspections (SG ECTs, Reactor Vessel UT, etc.), and the equipment we used was VERY expensive. Do you think that a blimp, or a robot that could map radiation in Rx building areas without needing personnel to receive dose would not be worth some thousand U$?

I will appreciate any more comment on this issue. Thanks!

Eugenio




Offline GLW

Re: Use of drones inside NPPs? (to get radiation maps)
« Reply #13 on: Dec 18, 2012, 12:08 »
...I have worked many years performing services in NPPs, mainly for big component inspections (SG ECTs, Reactor Vessel UT, etc.), and the equipment we used was VERY expensive.....

S/G's, Reactor Vessels, et al, keep the plant on line and making money,....

...Do you think that a blimp, or a robot that could map radiation in Rx building areas....

Survey maps do not keep the plant on-line, do not make money,....

been there, dun that,... the doormat to hell does not read "welcome", the doormat to hell reads "it's just business"

Offline Marlin

  • Forum Staff
  • *
  • Posts: 13146
  • Total likes: 534
  • Karma: 5129
  • Gender: Male
  • Stop Global Whining!!!
Re: Use of drones inside NPPs? (to get radiation maps)
« Reply #14 on: Dec 18, 2012, 01:01 »
I am a little bit confused about cost problem when we talk about this kind of equipment... I have worked many years performing services in NPPs, mainly for big component inspections (SG ECTs, Reactor Vessel UT, etc.), and the equipment we used was VERY expensive. Do you think that a blimp, or a robot that could map radiation in Rx building areas without needing personnel to receive dose would not be worth some thousand U$?

   Larger firms have much better sales engineers who can make the value of shiny stainless steel complex tools and equipment's value exceed the cost.  ;)    Item's that reduce critical path work are much easier to justify than survey equipment.

Offline Radwraith

  • Gold Member
  • *
  • Posts: 433
  • Total likes: 12
  • Karma: 331
  • Gender: Male
  • How much am I getting for this?
Re: Use of drones inside NPPs? (to get radiation maps)
« Reply #15 on: Dec 19, 2012, 12:05 »
I was recently at a plant that was considering the use of the AR drone to check for steam leaks in containment. The Idea was scrapped for 2 reasons. One the cross drafts and air currents in the area would likely have destabilized the drone's flight dynamics. Secondly, Controlling the device meant an unevaluated EM transmitter in containment which is apparently a big no-no! I don't think we'll be seeing the "survey drone" just yet. ;)
Remember the seven P's: Proper Prior Planning Prevents Piss Poor Performance!

Offline Marlin

  • Forum Staff
  • *
  • Posts: 13146
  • Total likes: 534
  • Karma: 5129
  • Gender: Male
  • Stop Global Whining!!!
Re: Use of drones inside NPPs? (to get radiation maps)
« Reply #16 on: Dec 19, 2012, 08:04 »
I was recently at a plant that was considering the use of the AR drone to check for steam leaks in containment. The Idea was scrapped for 2 reasons. One the cross drafts and air currents in the area would likely have destabilized the drone's flight dynamics. Secondly, Controlling the device meant an unevaluated EM transmitter in containment which is apparently a big no-no! I don't think we'll be seeing the "survey drone" just yet. ;)

That may be overcome by changing the frequency. I worked one job where the frequency worked fine to control a robot forklift but failed in the facility. Excellent point but just one more obstacle to overcome or only use it in shutdown modes of operation.

Offline EugenioGarnica

Re: Use of drones inside NPPs? (to get radiation maps)
« Reply #17 on: Dec 20, 2012, 03:08 »
Dear Radwraith and Marlin, many thanks for your comments.

It seems today we don't have enough technical capabilities so drones are a viable alternative for inspection in NPPs. We assume EM interferences is a big deal (I have already heard 2 problems related to that in Spanish and brazilian NPPs: a turbine trip and an spurious signal to run the containment spray system... fortunately while it was discharged!). It may be overcome by building an autonomous robot that needs no external EM signal while being "on duty", but that's clearly not an easy task. The air currents seems still more problematic, but still it may perhaps be possible to have a so-smart robot that can compensate them (today it's quite impressive how this kind of devices increase capability at a so high speed).

But, agreeing that today it seems not viable, the big question we have is... is it worth the effort to overcome all present technical limitations the possible gain we will have with an autonomous drone that can take measurements without the need of a worker getting dose? (taking into account  the risks of not being able to succeed!!!) What do you think?



Do you have any other idea about where it may be useful the use of this kind of robots/drones (out of the radiation surveys mapping) in NPPs? Some kind of other inspections (besides the personnel location for disciplinary action for slacking "Search and Rescue" capability  ;) )?

Many thanks for your very interesting comments!

Eugenio

Offline GLW

Re: Use of drones inside NPPs? (to get radiation maps)
« Reply #18 on: Dec 20, 2012, 04:09 »
Can they carry CsI or CdTe with an electronics package through sewer piping in a reproducible pattern?
« Last Edit: Dec 20, 2012, 04:09 by GLW »

been there, dun that,... the doormat to hell does not read "welcome", the doormat to hell reads "it's just business"

Offline EugenioGarnica

Re: Use of drones inside NPPs? (to get radiation maps)
« Reply #19 on: Dec 21, 2012, 03:27 »
Dear GLW,

I assume that for sewer piping, or any kind of piping, it's better to use some of the typical robots that are usually used in many places (in horizontal pipes, normal or belt wheels may be enough, in vertical pipes, some kind of magnets may be added; some examples below). Don't you think so? or I am missing something? ::)


Offline GLW

Re: Use of drones inside NPPs? (to get radiation maps)
« Reply #20 on: Dec 21, 2012, 05:48 »
Well, you opened the door to thinking outside the box,...

So I'm thinking less decon time, if any, ergo less T&M,...

Much faster ability to move through the piping to view/survey areas of interest, ergo less T&M,...

Fewer access points required, ergo less T&M,...

The trick in rad services is equivalent or better results for equivalent or less money, OR,...

Reacting early and aggressively to evolving regulations which change the playing field (e.g. NEI 07-07, NEI 09-14),...

And that's off the top of my head at 5:32AM EST without my coffee yet,...

With the scads of documentation available for those projects which have been done it should be easy to mock-up, extrapolate and then perform a CBA,...

With a positive CBA coming in with anything better than a 20% margin over conventional means and methods while retaining comparable conformance with industry DQA/DQO then a marketing campaign targeted at the appropriate clients should result in some trailbreaker contracts,...

With successful projects validated by regulatory approval of the results followed up by a demand for the services and products you have growth,....

etc,...etc.,....

check your PM's,... 8)

been there, dun that,... the doormat to hell does not read "welcome", the doormat to hell reads "it's just business"

Offline SloGlo

  • meter reader
  • Very Heavy User
  • *****
  • Posts: 5749
  • Total likes: 185
  • Karma: 2641
  • Gender: Male
  • trust me, i'm an hp
Re: Use of drones inside NPPs? (to get radiation maps)
« Reply #21 on: Dec 28, 2012, 12:26 »
are these toys gonna be free, oar at a grately reduced cost, on initial usage?  if knot, then their had better be a grate big insurance policy in effect. 
quando omni flunkus moritati

dubble eye, dubble yew, dubble aye!

dew the best ya kin, wit watt ya have, ware yinze are!

Offline EugenioGarnica

Re: Use of drones inside NPPs? (to get radiation maps)
« Reply #22 on: Jan 03, 2013, 06:50 »
Dear SloGlo,

You mean you see them dangerous for damaging things or for damaging themselves?

Offline SloGlo

  • meter reader
  • Very Heavy User
  • *****
  • Posts: 5749
  • Total likes: 185
  • Karma: 2641
  • Gender: Male
  • trust me, i'm an hp
Re: Use of drones inside NPPs? (to get radiation maps)
« Reply #23 on: Jan 03, 2013, 04:21 »
things.  especially when using the airborne drones, their's a lot of fairly delicate instrumentation, wiring, etc. that may not take kindly to bean crashed upon.  one of the scenarios that aye sea these been used would be during ops or immediately upon shut down.  if yore seismic restraint program is still in effect, it might be a bad time for flying around inside the can.
quando omni flunkus moritati

dubble eye, dubble yew, dubble aye!

dew the best ya kin, wit watt ya have, ware yinze are!

Offline EugenioGarnica

Re: Use of drones inside NPPs? (to get radiation maps)
« Reply #24 on: Jan 07, 2013, 09:50 »
OK, I understand a drone will need to be VERY well protected (both physically and by control systems) to avoid that it harms any other equipment.
Related to scenarios, I think it would be definitively easier/safer during refuelings, but... perharps the more interest one would be during operation?

Offline Marlin

  • Forum Staff
  • *
  • Posts: 13146
  • Total likes: 534
  • Karma: 5129
  • Gender: Male
  • Stop Global Whining!!!
Re: Use of drones inside NPPs? (to get radiation maps)
« Reply #25 on: May 23, 2013, 10:21 »
This isn't inside a NPP but it is IAEA

Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Environmental Monitoring


Development as Part of IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety

By Rodolfo Quevenco, IAEA Division of Public Information

It’s a sight you don’t often see at the headquarters of the IAEA in Vienna.

With a whirr of its 6 rotors and a puff of dust, a remote-controlled vehicle takes off and hovers above the heads of Agency officials and staff, and then flies along a pre-determined path.

The cylindrical, clover-shaped aerial vehicle with a mounted camera on board is one of the latest breed of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) – commonly known as “drones” – available today. The demonstration was held as part of a consultancy meeting on the parameters for using UAVs for rapid environmental monitoring held at IAEA headquarters from 14 to 17 May 2013.

The consultancy meeting was organized by the IAEA’s Physics Section within the framework of the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety. One of the aims of the Action Plan is to ensure the ongoing protection of people and the environment from ionizing radiation by facilitating the use of available expertise and techniques for environmental monitoring. The meeting was attended by environmental mapping and UAV experts from Germany, Japan, Switzerland and the USA to review and evaluate the current state of detector technology and methods, particularly in relation to aerial surveys and existing UAV technology.

“This consultancy meeting is the first step in a IAEA Nuclear Safety Action Plan project to prepare the ground for the development of a UAV-based system for rapid environmental monitoring,” Ralf Bernd Kaiser, Section Head of the IAEA Physics Section, explains.

Sessions during the four-day meeting featured specialist reports on the experience with aerial mapping including the use of UAVs, as well as reviews of detector technology, in particular mobile gamma spectrometry. These sessions provided the needed backdrop for evaluating project needs with present-day capabilities of commercial UAV technologies and radiation detector technologies.

Lighter and equipped with Global Positioning System (GPS) and battery technology developed for smart phones, today’s UAV systems can fill an important gap between walking surveys and manned aerial inspections. They are already widely used for other kinds of environmental monitoring, including air pollution and video surveillance.

“For environmental mapping, unmanned UAVs can be deployed to monitor hard to reach areas where the level of contamination is unknown, and establish whether you can actually send in people,” Mr. Kaiser said.

The final sessions of the consultancy meeting will focus on drafting the technical specification parameters for using an unmanned aerial vehicle for environmental mapping surveys of dose rate and radionuclide identification. In addition, experts will also draw up technical specifications for using these UAVs in combination with detector systems for low-level airborne gamma spectrometry.

The options and recommendations of the consultancy meeting will be presented during a stakeholder meeting scheduled to be held in Japan. After the meeting in Japan, the UAV (or UAVs) best suited for the application will be procured and the detector system(s) will be developed. “Our goal is to have a system for testing by the coming year,” Mr. Kaiser said.

http://ndreport.com/using-unmanned/

Offline Old HP

  • Moderate User
  • ***
  • Posts: 177
  • Total likes: 3
  • Karma: 275
  • Tell Recruiters to use NukeWorker.com
Re: Use of drones inside NPPs? (to get radiation maps)
« Reply #26 on: May 26, 2013, 07:46 »
There are a number of interesting proposals here ( especially Roger's with the stun capability, I had suggested that years ago with the advent of electronic dosimetry). However the reality is controlling a vehicle in a confined space with many obstacles, ventilation currents,darkness etc. then add transmitting dosimetry and hoping all systems work.Then lets imagine what it would take to accurately determine the drones position for interpreting the survey data. The concept is great but we have not progressed that far yet. I remember the robotic equipment brought into TMI shortly after the accident and it did not work so a bunch of us dumb HPs had to venture into all kinds of areas where no one had a clue as to what kind of exposure levels we would  find.
So now after 34 years I have had the good fortune to work with some new generation robotic equipment and it has gotten better but with many limiting factors. The best advances I have seen are SG- ECT equipment and use of submarines for RX vessel and H/L, C/L or MSL inspections.
As mentioned in earlier posts, by others, the cost and actual application values make it a simple choice for management to just send an HP in to get the information.

Offline RDTroja

  • Site Heretic
  • Gold Member
  • *
  • Posts: 3942
  • Total likes: 163
  • Karma: 4553
  • Gender: Male
  • I knew I got into IT for a reason!
Re: Use of drones inside NPPs? (to get radiation maps)
« Reply #27 on: May 28, 2013, 08:35 »
There are a number of interesting proposals here ( especially Roger's with the stun capability, I had suggested that years ago with the advent of electronic dosimetry). However the reality is controlling a vehicle in a confined space with many obstacles, ventilation currents,darkness etc. then add transmitting dosimetry and hoping all systems work.Then lets imagine what it would take to accurately determine the drones position for interpreting the survey data. The concept is great but we have not progressed that far yet. I remember the robotic equipment brought into TMI shortly after the accident and it did not work so a bunch of us dumb HPs had to venture into all kinds of areas where no one had a clue as to what kind of exposure levels we would  find.
So now after 34 years I have had the good fortune to work with some new generation robotic equipment and it has gotten better but with many limiting factors. The best advances I have seen are SG- ECT equipment and use of submarines for RX vessel and H/L, C/L or MSL inspections.
As mentioned in earlier posts, by others, the cost and actual application values make it a simple choice for management to just send an HP in to get the information.

The plant at which I am currently employed purchased a robot (ground variety) to go behind the bioshield at power to do an inspection. They had a 'Name the Robot' competition and I wanted to suggest (but did not spend the time) naming it 'Junior' as in 'Send the Junior in to see what it looks like in there.'

I didn't think the higher-ups would see the humor.
"I won't eat anything that has intelligent life, but I'd gladly eat a network executive or a politician."

                                  -Marty Feldman

"Politics is supposed to be the second-oldest profession. I have come to understand that it bears a very close resemblance to the first."
                                  -Ronald Reagan

I have never made but one prayer to God, a very short one: 'O Lord, make my enemies ridiculous.' And God granted it.

                                  - Voltaire

Offline GLW

Re: Use of drones inside NPPs? (to get radiation maps)
« Reply #28 on: May 28, 2013, 09:00 »
The plant at which I am currently employed purchased a robot (ground variety) to go behind the bioshield at power to do an inspection. They had a 'Name the Robot' competition and I wanted to suggest (but did not spend the time) naming it 'Junior' as in 'Send the Junior in to see what it looks like in there.'

I didn't think the higher-ups would see the humor.

back in the day, the Catholic school's Weekly Reader had Roinuj, a little egg shaped guy reminiscent of the human characters on the Pink Panther cartoons,...

Roinuj was junioR, backwards,...

some higher ups might go with that, it's funny but sophisticated, like a SONGS Trek dontcha know?!?!?!?

 :P ;) :) 8)
« Last Edit: May 28, 2013, 09:01 by GLW »

been there, dun that,... the doormat to hell does not read "welcome", the doormat to hell reads "it's just business"

 


NukeWorker ™ is a registered trademark of NukeWorker.com ™, LLC © 1996-2021 All rights reserved.
All material on this Web Site, including text, photographs, graphics, code and/or software, are protected by international copyright/trademark laws and treaties. Unauthorized use is not permitted. You may not modify, copy, reproduce, republish, upload, post, transmit or distribute, in any manner, the material on this web site or any portion of it. Doing so will result in severe civil and criminal penalties, and will be prosecuted to the maximum extent possible under the law.
Privacy Statement | Terms of Use | Code of Conduct | Spam Policy | Advertising Info | Contact Us | Forum Rules | Password Problem?