Help | Contact Us
NukeWorker.com
NukeWorker Menu Finding hard to detect nuclides

Author Topic: Finding hard to detect nuclides  (Read 11718 times)

0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic.

Offline Phurst

  • NRRPT-HPT
  • Very Heavy User
  • *****
  • Posts: 701
  • Total likes: 0
  • Karma: 1123
  • Gender: Male
  • One in a row!
Finding hard to detect nuclides
« on: Sep 02, 2005, 05:09 »
What do you use to find the soft beta emitters,Ni59,63, Pu241, C14, H3? Fe55.
Today is the best day of my life! HSIITBS!


'For the quality of owning freezes you forever into "I" and cuts you off forever from the "we". - Steinbeck

TEAMSPADY

  • Guest
Re: Finding hard to detect nuclides
« Reply #1 on: Sep 02, 2005, 05:24 »
Liquid scintillation counter(lsc)

Offline Phurst

  • NRRPT-HPT
  • Very Heavy User
  • *****
  • Posts: 701
  • Total likes: 0
  • Karma: 1123
  • Gender: Male
  • One in a row!
Re: Finding hard to detect nuclides
« Reply #2 on: Sep 06, 2005, 10:36 »
How about for releasing equipment or personnel?
Today is the best day of my life! HSIITBS!


'For the quality of owning freezes you forever into "I" and cuts you off forever from the "we". - Steinbeck

Offline Rennhack

Re: Finding hard to detect nuclides
« Reply #3 on: Sep 06, 2005, 12:09 »
From: TRITIUM MONITORING DOE-HDBK-1079-94 Tritium Primer


Surface Monitoring
Any material exposed to tritium or a tritiated compound has the potential of being contaminated. Although it is difficult to quantify tritium contamination levels, several methods are available to evaluate the extent of contamination, including smear surveys and off-gassing measurements. Good housekeeping and work practices are essential in maintaining contamination at acceptable levels.

For health or safety implications, an indication of loose, removable tritium contamination is more valuable than a measurement of the total surface contamination. Loose tritium can be transferred to the body by skin contact or inhalation if it becomes airborne. As a result, loose contamination is routinely monitored by smears, which are wiped over a surface and then analyzed by liquid scintillation or proportional counting.

The smears are typically small round filter papers used dry or wet (with water, glycol, or
glycerol). Wet smears are more efficient in removing tritium, and the results are more
reproducible, although the papers are usually more fragile when wet. However, results are only semiquantitative, and reproducibility within a factor of 2 agreement (for wet or dry smears) is considered satisfactory. Ordinarily, an area of 100 cm2 of the surface is wiped with the smear paper and quickly placed in a vial with about 10 mL of liquid scintillation cocktail, or 1 or 2 mL of water with the cocktail added later. The paper must be placed in liquid immediately after wiping because losses from evaporation can be considerable, especially if the paper is dry. The efficiency of the liquid scintillation cocktail is only slightly affected by the size of the swipe. Foam smears are also available commercially. These smears dissolve in most cocktails and do not interfere significantly with the normal counting efficiency.

Smears may be counted by gas-flow proportional counting. However, because of the inherent counting delays, tritium losses before counting can be significant. Moreover, counting efficiencies may be difficult to determine and may vary greatly from one sample to the next. Another drawback is potential contamination of the counting chamber when counting very "hot" smears. For all of these reasons, a liquid scintillation spectrometer is the preferred system. An effective tritium health physics program must specify the frequency of routine smear surveys.

Each facility should develop a routine surveillance program that may include daily smear surveys in laboratories, process areas, step-off pads, change rooms, and lunchrooms. In many locations within a facility, weekly or monthly routine smear surveys may be sufficient. The frequency should be dictated by operational experience and the potential for contamination. In addition to the routine survey program, special surveys should be made following spills or on potentially contaminated material being transferred to a less controlled area to prevent the spread of contamination from controlled areas.

The surface contamination levels acceptable for the release of materials from radiological areas may be found in the DOE Radiological Control Manual and DOE Order 5400.5.

Tritium Probes
In general, the total tritium contamination on a surface can be measured only by destructive techniques. When tritium penetrates a surface even slightly, it becomes undetectable because of the weak energy of its beta particles. With open-window probes operated in the Geiger Mueller (GM) or proportional regions, it is possible to measure many of the betas emitted from the surface. Quantifying that measurement in terms of the total tritium present is difficult because the history of every exposure is different. Consequently, the relative amounts of measurable and un-measurable tritium are different.

Such monitoring probes are used to survey areas quickly before more careful monitoring
by smears, or to monitor the smears themselves while in the field. The probe must be protected carefully from contamination. When monitoring a slightly contaminated surface after monitoring a highly contaminated one, contamination of the probe can be an immediate problem. Placing a disposable mask over the front face of the probe can reduce, but never eliminate this contamination, particularly if the tritium is rapidly out-gassing from the surface. Sensitivity of the instrument depends on many factors, but should be about 103 to 104 dpm/cm2. For highly contaminated surfaces (>1 mCi/100 cm2), a thin sodium iodide crystal or a thin-window GM tube can be used to measure the characteristic and continuous x-rays (Bremsstrahlung) emitted from the surface as a result of the interaction of the beta particle with the surface material.

Off-Gassing Measurements
Off-gassing can be measured using one of two methods. The simplest method is to "sniff" the surface for airborne tritium using a portable or fixed tritium monitor. The most reliable method, however, uses a closed-loop system of known volume and a flow-through ionization chamber monitor. By placing the sample inside the volume and measuring the change in concentration over time, tritium off-gassing rates can be determined accurately on virtually any material. The initial off-gassing rate is the required value because the equilibrium concentration may be reached quickly in a closed volume, especially if the volume is small because of recontamination by the airborne tritium.

The uptake of tritium from off-gassing materials is difficult to predict. Off-gassing tritium that is readily measured indicates contaminated equipment that should not be released for uncontrolled use.

Liquid Monitoring
Liquid is almost universally monitored by liquid scintillation counting. The liquid must be compatible with the cocktail. Certain chemicals can degrade the cocktail. Others may retain much of the tritium; still others result in a high degree of quenching. In addition, samples that contain peroxide or that are alkaline may result in chemiluminescence that can interfere with measuring. Such samples should first be neutralized before counting. Chemiluminescence and phosphorescence both decay with time. Phosphorescence, activated by sunlight or fluorescent lighting, decays in the dark in a few minutes (fast component) to several days (slow component).

Chemiluminescence, the result of chemical interaction of sample components, may take days to decay at room temperatures, but takes only hours to decay at the cold temperatures of a refrigerated liquid scintillation spectrometer. Distillations may be necessary for some samples.

For rather "hot" samples, as may be the case for vacuum pump oils, Bremsstrahlung counting may be useful. This technique may also be useful for active monitoring of "hot" liquids. Liquids may be monitored actively with scintillation flow cells, which are often made of plastic scintillator material or of glass tubing filled with anthracene crystals. However, both types are prone to memory effects that result from tritium contamination. In addition, flow cells are also prone to contamination by algae or other foreign material that can quickly degrade their counting efficiency.

See Also DOE HDBK-1105-96 Radiological Training for Tritium Facilities

Offline SloGlo

  • meter reader
  • Very Heavy User
  • *****
  • Posts: 5749
  • Total likes: 185
  • Karma: 2641
  • Gender: Male
  • trust me, i'm an hp
Re: Finding hard to detect nuclides
« Reply #4 on: Sep 08, 2005, 05:50 »
From: TRITIUM MONITORING DOE-HDBK-1079-94 Tritium Primer

Tritium Probes
In general, the total tritium contamination on a surface can be measured only by destructive techniques. When tritium penetrates a surface even slightly, it becomes undetectable because of the weak energy of its beta particles. With open-window probes operated in the Geiger Mueller (GM) or proportional regions, it is possible to measure many of the betas emitted from the surface. Quantifying that measurement in terms of the total tritium present is difficult because the history of every exposure is different. Consequently, the relative amounts of measurable and un-measurable tritium are different.

Such monitoring probes are used to survey areas quickly before more careful monitoring
by smears, or to monitor the smears themselves while in the field. The probe must be protected carefully from contamination. When monitoring a slightly contaminated surface after monitoring a highly contaminated one, contamination of the probe can be an immediate problem. Placing a disposable mask over the front face of the probe can reduce, but never eliminate this contamination, particularly if the tritium is rapidly out-gassing from the surface. Sensitivity of the instrument depends on many factors, but should be about 103 to 104 dpm/cm2. For highly contaminated surfaces (>1 mCi/100 cm2), a thin sodium iodide crystal or a thin-window GM tube can be used to measure the characteristic and continuous x-rays (Bremsstrahlung) emitted from the surface as a result of the interaction of the beta particle with the surface material.

See Also DOE HDBK-1105-96 Radiological Training for Tritium Facilities

use of a h3 probe is a delicate matter.  i've only used the gas proportional by ludlum, the 44-110.  it's basically a 43-68 without the mylar and a foam gasket around the flange.  it must be purged at every survey site.  scanning is extremely tedious, as one must be constantly aware of the potential for dust particles gettig kicked up and attracted to the anodes, which shields detection.  therefore, using a mask over the detection area will also shield,at least to my line of thinking.  with time to spare, it's not a bad scenario, just one that requires competent operators.   i dunno why i got pikt, jist unlucky eye gues. ;)
quando omni flunkus moritati

dubble eye, dubble yew, dubble aye!

dew the best ya kin, wit watt ya have, ware yinze are!

Jallan

  • Guest
open window proportional detectors for Fe55 contamination
« Reply #5 on: Nov 04, 2006, 11:11 »
Our accelerator is faced with measuring for Fe55 contamination.
since regular GM pancakes are not sensitive enough, what field instruments are you using?

Offline Mike McFarlin

  • Safety/Chemist/Health Physicist
  • Very Heavy User
  • *****
  • Posts: 1539
  • Total likes: 3
  • Karma: 2145
  • Gender: Male
  • Lead, follow, or get the hell out of the way!
Re: Finding hard to detect nuclides
« Reply #6 on: Nov 04, 2006, 11:59 »
Liquid scintillation counters are used for "soft" beta emitters such as H3, C14, Ni59 & 61, Pu241, and Fe55.
"Duty is the sublimest word in our language. Do your duty in all things. You cannot do more. You should never wish to do less." General Robert E. Lee, C.S.A.

stownsend

  • Guest
Re: Finding hard to detect nuclides
« Reply #7 on: Nov 06, 2006, 08:29 »
We took NIST tracable standards and had our radiochemist make up a 500 dpm,5000 dpm amd a 50000 dpm solution and ran them on the LSC for I 125,Ni 63,and Fe55. We got 69%,71% and 31% respectively.We tried to count Ni 63 on our Protean but it was <1%.We also set up a protocol splitting the energy ranges for I 125 into channel A and Channel B so we could see if H3 was in there also. Medical was using both . I 125 threw us for a loop with the 20 dpm limit until we ran some tests and our supervisor wrote a technical basis document to justify the way we do it. We researched the WEB and got all kind of responses from tennilecs, to lud 3's, sodium iodine detectors.The background on our sodium iodine detector runs about 1100 counts so it's impossible to see 20 dpm.Hope this helps.

 


NukeWorker ™ is a registered trademark of NukeWorker.com ™, LLC © 1996-2021 All rights reserved.
All material on this Web Site, including text, photographs, graphics, code and/or software, are protected by international copyright/trademark laws and treaties. Unauthorized use is not permitted. You may not modify, copy, reproduce, republish, upload, post, transmit or distribute, in any manner, the material on this web site or any portion of it. Doing so will result in severe civil and criminal penalties, and will be prosecuted to the maximum extent possible under the law.
Privacy Statement | Terms of Use | Code of Conduct | Spam Policy | Advertising Info | Contact Us | Forum Rules | Password Problem?